The history of wars from animals to humans and from primitive societies to the present day are summarised. Theories of wars are looked at. Three agonistic survival strategies – fight, goal achievement, and competition are put forward as vehicles for lethal aggression. What provokes these drives is examined. Provocations may range from severe environments to quite distant symbols of them. Aggression may range from individuals to nations.
See also my entries on War in The Encyclopedia of Trauma.
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